lunes, 20 de febrero de 2017

Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level

Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union, and ranks second in the United States only behind salmonellosis. In Europe, there are about nine million cases of campylobacteriosis every year, making the disease a major public health issue. Human cases are mainly caused by the zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. The main source of contamination is handling or consumption of poultry meat. Poultry constitutes the main reservoir of Campylobacter, substantial quantities of which are found in the intestines following rapid, intense colonization. Reducing Campylobacter levels in the poultry chain would decrease the incidence of human campylobacteriosis. As primary production is a crucial step in Campylobacter poultry contamination, controlling the infection at this level could impact the following links along the food chain (slaughter, retail and consumption). This review describes the control strategies implemented during the past few decades in primary poultry production, including the most recent studies. In fact, the implementation of biosecurity and hygiene measures is described, as well as the immune strategy with passive immunization and vaccination trials and the nutritional strategy with the administration of organic and fatty acids, essential oil and plant-derived compound, probiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophages.

REFERENCIA:
Meunier M, et al. Control strategies against Campylobacter at the poultry production level: biosecurity measures, feed additives and vaccination. J Appl Microbiol. 2016 May;120(5):1139-73.
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jueves, 16 de febrero de 2017

Permeation of limonene through disposable nitrile gloves

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of the low-volatile solvent limonene through different disposable, unlined, unsupported, nitrile exam whole gloves (blue, purple, sterling, and lavender, from Kimberly-Clark).
METHODS: This study utilized a moving and static dextrous robot hand as part of a novel dynamic permeation system that allowed sampling at specific times. Quantitation of limonene in samples was based on capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the internal standard method (4-bromophenol).
RESULTS: The average post-permeation thicknesses (before reconditioning) for all gloves for both the moving and static hand were more than 10% of the pre-permeation ones (P ≤ 0.05), although this was not so on reconditioning. The standardized breakthrough times and steady-state permeation periods were similar for the blue, purple, and sterling gloves. Both methods had similar sensitivity. The lavender glove showed a higher permeation rate (0.490 ± 0.031 μg/cm2/min) for the moving robotic hand compared to the non-moving hand (P ≤ 0.05), this being ascribed to a thickness threshold.
CONCLUSIONS: Permeation parameters for the static and dynamic robot hand models indicate that both methods have similar sensitivity in detecting the analyte during permeation and the blue, purple, and sterling gloves behave similarly during the permeation process whether moving or non-moving.

REFERENCE:
Banaee S, Que Hee SS. PERMEATION OF LIMONENE THROUGH DISPOSABLE NITRILE GLOVES USING A DEXTROUS ROBOT HAND. J Occup Health. 2017 Jan 21.

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lunes, 13 de febrero de 2017

EBSA upcoming events on #Biosafety

22 MAR 2017
7th “Annual International Symposium on Biosafety and Biosecurity: Future Trends and Solutions”
Milán, Italy.
When: 22 March 2017 - 13:00 to 24 March 2017 - 14:00

25 APR 2017
20th Annual meeting - EBSA conference
Madrid, Spain
When: 25 April 2017 - 09:00 to 28 April 2017 - 17:00

12 JUN 2017
IVBW18- International Veterinary Biosafety Workgroup
When: 12 June 2017 - 10:00 to 15 June 2017
Brazil.

24 AUG 2017
SBNet - 11th Applied Biosafety Meeting
When: 24 August 2017 - 13:00 to 25 August 2017 - 17:00
Basel, Switzerland,

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martes, 7 de febrero de 2017

Aerosol Generation During Bone-Sawing Procedures in Veterinary Autopsies

elpais.com; NatGeo
Bone-sawing procedures are routinely performed during veterinary and human autopsies and represent an important source for infectious aerosols. Here we investigate the generation of aerosols during bone-sawing procedures using 5 different saws regularly used in veterinary and human pathology. In particular, the electrical bone band saw produced vast amounts of aerosolized particles less than 5 µm in diameter, which spread rapidly throughout the entire autopsy hall, leading to an exposure of all personnel. Other sawing devices tested were a diamond-coated cut grinder, an oscillating saw, a reciprocating saw, and a hand bone saw. Although these saws, especially the handsaw, generated fewer aerosolized particles than the band saw, the level of exposure of the saw operator would still be of concern in cases where infectious material would require sawing. Contamination of the entire autopsy area was successfully prevented by the construction of a separately ventilated sawing cabin inside the existing autopsy room. Saw operators in this cabin, however, were exposed to even higher aerosol concentrations. Protection of saw operators was achieved by using a powered air-purifying respirator. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that all bone-sawing procedures applied in veterinary and human pathology can generate aerosols that are of concern for the health of autopsy personnel. To reduce the risk of aerosol infections from bone-sawing procedures, efficient and properly designed ventilation systems to limit the spread of aerosols and appropriate personal protective equipment against aerosols for exposed personnel should be implemented.

REFERENCES:
Wenner L, et al. Aerosol Generation During Bone-Sawing Procedures in Veterinary Autopsies. Vet Pathol. 2017 Jan 1:300985816688744. doi: 10.1177/0300985816688744.

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lunes, 30 de enero de 2017

Universal and reusable virus deactivation system for respiratory protection

Aerosolized pathogens are a leading cause of respiratory infection and transmission. Currently used protective measures pose potential risk of primary/secondary infection and transmission. Here, we report the development of a universal, reusable virus deactivation system by functionalization of the main fibrous filtration unit of surgical mask with sodium chloride salt. The salt coating on the fiber surface dissolves upon exposure to virus aerosols and recrystallizes during drying, destroying the pathogens. When tested with tightly sealed sides, salt-coated filters showed remarkably higher filtration efficiency than conventional mask filtration layer, and 100% survival rate was observed in mice infected with virus penetrated through salt-coated filters. Viruses captured on salt-coated filters exhibited rapid infectivity loss compared to gradual decrease on bare filters. Salt-coated filters proved highly effective in deactivating influenza viruses regardless of subtypes and following storage in harsh environmental conditions. Our results can be applied in obtaining a broad-spectrum, airborne pathogen prevention device in preparation for epidemic and pandemic of respiratory diseases.

REFERENCE:
Quan, Fu-Shi et al. “Universal and Reusable Virus Deactivation System for Respiratory Protection.” Scientific Reports 7 (2017): 39956. PMC. Web. 8 Jan. 2017.

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lunes, 23 de enero de 2017

How to improve influenza vaccine coverage of healthcare personnel

Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide each year. Healthcare-associated influenza is a frequent event. Health care personnel (HCP) may be the source for infecting patients and may propagate nosocomial outbreaks. All HCP should receive a dose of influenza vaccine each year to protect themselves and others. This commentary will discuss the study recently published in the IJHPR by Nutman and Yoeli which assessed the beliefs and attitudes of HCP in an Israel hospital regarding influenza and the influenza vaccine. Unfortunately, as noted by Nutman and Yoeli in this issue many HCP in Israel choose not to receive influenza immunization and many harbor misconceptions regarding their risk for influenza as well as the benefits of influenza vaccine. We also discuss proven methods to increase acceptance by HCP for receiving an annual influenza vaccine.

REFERENCE:
Weber, David J., Orenstein W, and Rutala WA. “How to Improve Influenza Vaccine Coverage of Healthcare Personnel.” Israel Journal of Health Policy Research 5 (2016): 61. PMC. Web. 8 Jan. 2017.

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jueves, 19 de enero de 2017

Occupational HIV infection in a research laboratory

A lab-worker was infected with HIV-1 in a biosafety level-2 of containment, without any apparent breach. Through full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, we could identify the source of infection in a replication-competent clone, unknowingly contaminating a safe experiment. Mode of transmission remains unclear. Caution is warranted when handling HIV-derived constructs.

REFERENCE:
Soria A, Alteri C, Scarlatti G, et al. Occupational HIV infection in a research laboratory with unknown mode of transmission: a case report. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Dec 28.
(ACCESO SOLO CON SUBSCRIPCIÓN)
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miércoles, 18 de enero de 2017

Entra en vigor la prohibición de la #FDA de usar guantes con talco

A partir de hoy, Enero 18 de 2017, entra en vigor la prohibición del uso de guantes con talco, tanto en instalaciones de atención a la salud como en áreas veterinarias, en virtud de que plantean peligros para la salud humana. El talco utilizado en todos los tipos de guantes se ha relacionado con muchos efectos adversos potencialmente graves, como inflamación grave de las vías respiratorias, reacciones de hipersensibilidad, reacciones alérgicas (incluida el asma), inflamación y daño pulmonar, granuloma y adherencias peritoneales. Las reacciones alérgicas respiratorias también pueden deberse a proteínas en el talco de guantes pulverizado, señala la FDA.
De acuerdo con el organismo oficial, se cuenta con alternativas sin talco para guantes, tanto de cirujanos como para la exploración de pacientes, y proporcionan protección similar, destreza y desempeño, pero sin ninguno de los riesgos asociados a los guantes con talco. "Por consiguiente, una transición a las alternativas disponibles en el comercio no debiera ir en detrimento de la salud pública". Las alternativas a este tipo de guantes, son el uso de guantes SIN TALCO. La prohibición incluye la fabricación, distribución, venta y uso de guantes con talco como producto final, por lo que es de esperarse que los fabricantes de Estados Unidos dejen de distribuir a otros países.
Con información de Medscape y FDA.gov

REFERENCIAS:

  1. FDA: Banned Devices; Ban Powdered Surgeon’s Gloves,Powdered Patient Examination Gloves, andAbsorbable Powder for Lubricating a Surgeon’sGlove
  2. FDA Ban on Powdered Medical Gloves Applies to Veterinary Use
  3. Decisión final: La FDA prohíbe los guantes con talco en las intervenciones quirúrgicas y en la práctica clínica
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martes, 17 de enero de 2017

#Zika virus in asymptomatic blood donors in Martinique

Many aspects of Zika fever natural history remain unknown (eg, the proportion of asymptomatic cases and the duration of viremia). Estimating the prevalence of Zika infections is difficult because a large proportion of infected individuals do not seek medical attention, and seroprevalence studies are hampered by antigenic cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses (eg, dengue virus).11 Here, we present a study of ZIKV infection in blood donors from Martinique island (French West Indies, Caribbean region), with novel epidemiological, biological, and clinical information that refines the picture of Zika fever in adults.

REFERENCE:
Gallian P, et al. Zika virus in asymptomatic blood donors in Martinique. Blood. 2017 Jan 12;129(2):263-266.
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lunes, 16 de enero de 2017

NOM-051-SCT2-2011, Clasificación de substancias infecciosas y embalaje

CONSIDERANDO:
Que es necesario establecer las disposiciones generales que se deben cumplir para el transporte de los envases y embalajes de las substancias peligrosas de la división 6.2 agentes infecciosos.
Que dada la importancia de la utilización de envases y embalajes de las substancias peligrosas de la división 6.2, es menester que se realice bajo condiciones que garanticen la seguridad en la prestación de los servicios de transporte, y que esto no represente un riesgo para la población y el medio ambiente.
Se publicó la:
NORMA Oficial Mexicana NOM-051-SCT2/2011, Especificaciones para la clasificación de las substancias infecciosas y especificaciones especiales y adicionales para la construcción y ensayo (prueba) de los envases y/o embalajes que transporten substancias infecciosas de la división 6.2, Categoría A.

Guidance on regulations for the Transport of Infectious Substances 2015–2016 (Se actualizará en los próximos meses para el periodo 2017-2018.)
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