lunes, 9 de enero de 2017

European agreement: International carriage of dangerous goods by road

This authoritative Agreement is intended to increase the safety of international transport of dangerous goods by road. Its Annexes A and B contain the technical requirements for road transport, i.e. the conditions under which dangerous goods, when authorized for transport, may be carried internationally, as well as uniform provisions concerning the construction and operation of vehicles carrying dangerous goods. They also establish international requirements and procedures for training and safety obligations of participants. The Agreement has been regularly amended and updated since its entry into force. This version has been prepared on the basis of amendments applicable as from 1 January 2017.

REFERENCE:
European agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road.
United Nations 2016.
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viernes, 23 de diciembre de 2016

#HISTORY: The Spanish royal philanthropic expedition to bring #smallpox vaccination to the New World, XIX Century

The New World was ravaged by smallpox for several centuries after the Spanish conquest. Jenner's discovery of the smallpox vaccine made possible the prevention and control of smallpox epidemics. In response to a large outbreak of smallpox in the Spanish colonies, King Charles IV appointed Francisco Xavier de Balmis to lead an expedition that would introduce Jenner's vaccine to these colonies. During the journey, the vaccine was kept viable by passing it from arm to arm in orphaned children, who were brought along expressly for that purpose and remained under the care of the orphanage's director. This expedition was the first large scale mass vaccination of its kind. The historic legacy of this pioneering event in international health should be revisited in the current era of persistent inequalities in global health.

>> VER PELÍCULA (antes del 27DIC2016) <<

REFERENCIA:
Franco-Paredes C, Lammoglia L, Santos-Preciado JI. The Spanish royal philanthropic expedition to bring smallpox vaccination to the New World and Asia  in the 19th century. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 1;41(9):1285-9.
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lunes, 19 de diciembre de 2016

Use of transgenic Aedes aegypti in Brazil: risk perception and assessment.

Este artículo se encuentra en ESPAÑOL / This article is translated in multi languages
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The OX513A strain of Aedes aegypti, which was developed by the British company Oxitec, expresses a self-limiting transgene that prevents larvae from developing to adulthood. In April 2014, the Brazilian National Technical Commission on Biosafety completed a risk assessment of OX513A and concluded that the strain did not present new biological risks to humans or the environment and could be released in Brazil. At that point, Brazil became the first country to approve the unconstrained release of a genetically modified mosquito. During the assessment, the commission produced a comprehensive list of - and systematically analysed - the perceived hazards. Such hazards included the potential survival to adulthood of immature stages carrying the transgene - should the transgene fail to be expressed or be turned off by exposure to sufficient environmental tetracycline. Other perceived hazards included the potential allergenicity and/or toxicity of the proteins expressed by the gene, the potential for gene flow or increased transmission of human pathogens and the occupation of vacant breeding sites by other vector species. The Zika epidemic both elevated the perceived importance of Ae. aegypti as a vector - among policy-makers and regulators as well as the general public - and increased concerns over the release of males of the OX513A strain. We have therefore reassessed the potential hazards. We found that release of the transgenic mosquitoes would still be both safe and of great potential value in the control of diseases spread by Ae. aegypti, such as chikungunya, dengue and Zika.
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Uso de Aedes aegypti transgénicos en Brasil: percepción y evaluación de riesgos
La cepa OX513A de Aedes aegypti, que desarrolló la empresa británica Oxitec, expresa un transgén autolimitado que impide que las larvas se desarrollen hasta la edad adulta. En abril de 2014, la Comisión Nacional Técnica de Bioseguridad de Brasil realizó una evaluación de riesgos de OX513A y concluyó que la cepa no presentaba nuevos riesgos biológicos para los humanos o el medioambiente y que podría liberarse en Brasil. En ese momento, Brasil se convirtió en el primer país en aprobar la liberación ilimitada de un mosquito modificado genéticamente. A lo largo de la evaluación, la comisión redactó una lista completa, y analizada sistemáticamente, de las posibles contingencias. Entre dichos peligros se encontraba la posible supervivencia hasta la edad adulta de etapas inmaduras que portan el transgén, en caso de que éste no consiga expresarse o se inutilice debido a la exposición a la suficiente tetraciclina medioambiental. Otras posibles contingencias eran la alergia y/o toxicidad de las proteínas expresadas por el gen, la posibilidad de un flujo genético o el aumento de la transmisión de patógenos humanos y la ocupación de lugares de cría desocupados por parte de otras especies vectores. La epidemia por el virus de Zika aumentó la importancia de Ae. aegypti como vector, entre los responsables y reguladores políticos, así como entre el público general, y aumentó las preocupaciones acerca de la liberación de machos de la cepa OX513A. Por lo tanto, se han vuelto a evaluar los posibles riesgos. Se ha descubierto que la liberación de mosquitos transgénicos sería segura y tendría un gran valor potencial en el control de la propagación de enfermedades por Ae. aegypti, como la fiebre chikungunya, el dengue y la enfermedad por el virus de Zika.
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REFERENCE:
Paes de Andrade P, et al. Use of transgenic Aedes aegypti in Brazil: risk perception and assessment. Bull World Health Organ. 2016 Oct 1;94(10):766-771.
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sábado, 17 de diciembre de 2016

Película completa "22 angeles" online, por RTVE. Hasta Dic 27, 2016. #viruela

Ya pueden verla en línea. Disponible hasta el 27 de diciembre de 2016.
Gran historia basada en hechos reales: la expedición encabezada por el doctor Francisco Javier Balmis que llevó la vacuna de la viruela a las Américas a comienzos del siglo XIX.
En el barco en el que emprenden la travesía viajan 22 niños, los portadores de la vacuna de la viruela “brazo a brazo”. Junto a ellos, la directora de un orfanato de A Coruña, Isabel Cendal, la encargada de encontrar a los “22 ángeles” y la persona que se ocupará de ellos a lo largo de toda la travesía. Una mujer en un barco lleno de rudos marineros, pero donde también viaja el ayudante del doctor Balmis, el doctor Salvany.

>> VER COMPLETO "22 ÀNGELES" <<
http://www.rtve.es/alacarta/videos/22-angeles/22-angeles-cap-1-hd/3827192/

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martes, 13 de diciembre de 2016

Revista Mexicana de Bioseguridad 2016

La Asociación Mexicana de Bioseguridad presentó la nueva Revista MExicana de Bioseguridad 2016, que contiene como artículo principal los Lineamientos para la Gestión de Riesgo Biológico, un gran esfuerzo de profesionales de Bioseguridad en México, con base en el CWA15793: Laboratory Biorisk Management 2018. La revista contiene además, el archivo fotográfico y resúmenes de trabajos libres del 8º Simposio de Bioseguridad y Biocustodia desarrollado en 2016. Pueden descargar la revista y sus ediciones anteriores desde la página: http://amexbio.wildapricot.org/Revista

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lunes, 5 de diciembre de 2016

Establishing protocols for tick containment at Biosafety Level 4.

Tick-borne diseases continue to emerge and have a great impact on public health and agriculture. In addition, many of the agents of tick-borne diseases, which are classified as Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) viruses, have the potential to be used as biothreat agents. In spite of the known importance of these pathogens, there is an acute shortage of facilities and trained personnel to study the pathogenesis of tick-borne diseases and to assess vaccine as well as other therapeutic interventions against tick-borne diseases as they are transmitted in nature. We, at the Galveston National Laboratory, have developed facilities and protocols to safely work with BSL4 virus-infected ticks. This capability adds tremendous value to the Nation's training and research endeavors. In this report we describe the procedures and protocols to establish tick work in a BSL4 laboratory.

REFERENCE:
Thangamani S, Bente D. Establishing protocols for tick containment at Biosafety Level 4. Pathog Dis. 2014 Jul;71(2):282-5.
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lunes, 28 de noviembre de 2016

Preparation of viral samples within biocontainment for ultrastructural analysis

Transmission electron microscopy can be used to observe the ultrastructure of viruses and other microbial pathogens with nanometer resolution. In a transmission electron microscope (TEM), the image is created by passing an electron beam through a specimen with contrast generated by electron scattering from dense elements in the specimen. Viruses do not normally contain dense elements, so a negative stain that places dense heavy metal salts around the sample is added to create a dark border. To prepare a virus sample for a negative stain transmission electron microscopy, a virus suspension is applied to a TEM grid specimen support, which is a 3mm diameter fragile specimen screen coated with a few nanometers of plastic film. Then, deionized (dI) water rinses and a negative stain solution are applied to the grid. All infectious viruses must be handled in a biosafety cabinet (BSC) and many require a biocontainment laboratory environment. Staining viruses in biosafety levels (BSL) 3 and 4 is especially challenging because the support grids are small, fragile, and easily moved by air currents. In this study we evaluated a new device for negative staining viruses called mPrep/g capsule. It is a capsule that holds up to two TEM grids during all processing steps and for storage after staining is complete. This study reports that the mPrep/g capsule method is valid and effective to negative stain virus specimens, especially in high containment laboratory environments.

REFERENCE:
Monninger MK, et al. Preparation of viral samples within biocontainment for ultrastructural analysis: Utilization of an innovative processing capsule for negative staining. J Virol Methods. 2016 Dec;238:70-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.10.005. PubMed PMID: 27751950.
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martes, 22 de noviembre de 2016

#VIDEO: Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory

Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) suit laboratories are specifically designed to study high-consequence pathogens for which neither infection prophylaxes nor treatment options exist. The hallmarks of these laboratories are: custom-designed airtight doors, dedicated supply and exhaust airflow systems, a negative-pressure environment, and mandatory use of positive-pressure (“space”) suits. The risk for laboratory specialists working with highly pathogenic agents is minimized through rigorous training and adherence to stringent safety protocols and standard operating procedures. Researchers perform the majority of their work in BSL-2 laboratories and switch to BSL-4 suit laboratories when work with a high-consequence pathogen is required. Collaborators and scientists considering BSL-4 projects should be aware of the challenges associated with BSL-4 research both in terms of experimental technical limitations in BSL-4 laboratory space and the increased duration of such experiments. Tasks such as entering and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories are considerably more complex and time-consuming compared to BSL-2 and BSL-3 laboratories. The focus of this particular article is to address basic biosafety concerns and describe the entrance and exit procedures for the BSL-4 laboratory at the NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick. Such procedures include checking external systems that support the BSL-4 laboratory, and inspecting and donning positive-pressure suits, entering the laboratory, moving through air pressure-resistant doors, and connecting to air-supply hoses. We will also discuss moving within and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories, including using the chemical shower and removing and storing positive-pressure suits.

REFERENCE:
Janosko, Krisztina et al. “Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures.” Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE 116 (2016): 52317. PMC. Web. 17 Nov. 2016.
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lunes, 14 de noviembre de 2016

Containment of Arthropod Disease Vectors

Arthropods
Effective containment of arthropod vectors of infectious diseases is necessary to prevent transmission of pathogens by released, infected vectors and to prevent vectors that escape from establishing populations that subsequently contribute to increased disease. Although rare, past releases illustrate what can go wrong and justify the need for guidelines that minimize risks. An overview of recommendations for insectary facilities, practices, and equipment is provided, and features of four recently published and increasingly rigorous arthropod containment levels (ACLs 1-4) are summarized. ACL-1 is appropriate for research that constitutes the lowest risk level, including uninfected arthropods or vectors that are infected with micro-organisms that do not cause disease in humans, domestic animals, or wildlife. ACL-2 is appropriate for indigenous and exotic arthropods that represent a moderate risk, including vectors infected or suspected of being infected with biosafety level (BSL)-2 infectious agents and arthropods that have been genetically modified in ways that do not significantly affect their fecundity, survival, host preference, or vector competence. ACL-3 is recommended for arthropods that are or may be infected with BSL-3 infectious agents. ACL-3 places greater emphasis on pathogen containment and more restricted access to the insectary than ACL-2. ACL-4 is intended for arthropods that are infected with the most dangerous BSL-4 infectious agents, which can cause life-threatening illness by aerosol or arthropod bite. Adherence to these guidelines will result in laboratory-based arthropod vector research that minimizes risks and results in important new contributions to applied and basic science.

REFERENCE:
Scott TW. Containment of arthropod disease vectors. ILAR J. 2005;46(1):53-61. Review.

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lunes, 7 de noviembre de 2016

Communicable Diseases and Outbreak Control

Infectious disease during an emergency condition can raise the death rate 60 times in comparison to other causes including trauma. An epidemic, or outbreak, can occur when several aspects of the agent (pathogen), population (hosts), and the environment create an ideal situation for spread. Overcrowding, poor regional design and hygiene due to poverty, dirty drinking water, rapid climate changes, and natural disasters, can lead to conditions that allow easier transmission of disease. Once it has been established that an emergency condition exists, there must be a prompt and thorough response for communicable disease control. A camp should be created, and the disease managed rapidly. The overall goals are rapid assessment, prevention, surveillance, outbreak control, and disease management.
REFERENCE:
AMELI, Jonathan. “Communicable Diseases and Outbreak Control.” Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine 15.Suppl 1 (2015): 20–26. PMC.

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