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jueves, 24 de mayo de 2018

Defining the sizes of airborne particles that mediate influenza transmission in ferrets

Epidemics and pandemics of influenza are characterized by rapid global spread mediated by non-mutually exclusive transmission modes. The relative significance between contact, droplet, and airborne transmission is yet to be defined, a knowledge gap for implementing evidence-based infection control measures. We devised a transmission chamber that separates virus-laden particles by size and determined the particle sizes mediating transmission of influenza among ferrets through the air. Ferret-to-ferret transmission was mediated by airborne particles larger than 1.5 µm, consistent with the quantity and size of virus-laden particles released by the donors. Onward transmission by donors was most efficient before fever onset and may continue for 5 days after inoculation. Multiple virus gene segments enhanced the transmissibility of a swine influenza virus among ferrets by increasing the release of virus-laden particles into the air. We provide direct experimental evidence of influenza transmission via droplets and fine droplet nuclei, albeit at different efficiency.
REFERENCE:
Zhou, Jie et al. “Defining the Sizes of Airborne Particles That Mediate Influenza Transmission in Ferrets.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115.10 (2018): E2386–E2392. PMC. Web. 18 May 2018.

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miércoles, 23 de mayo de 2018

Hospital-acquired malaria infections in the European Union

Executive summary:
Between January 2016 and April 2018, six sporadic hospital transmissions of malaria were identified in the European Union (EU). Although uncommon, hospital transmission of malaria has been described previously. While the countries reporting these six cases (i.e. Germany, Greece, Italy and Spain) have not observed an increase in the number of sporadic hospital-acquired cases of malaria since January 2016, the concomitant occurrence of these cases in four countries makes the overall event unusual. The mode(s) of transmission have not been determined for any of the cases. This rapid risk assessment presents the context, details investigations into the cases and offers options for prevention and control. 
According to the scientific literature, the following modes of transmission should be taken into account in the investigation of hospital-acquired malaria:

  • Parenteral introduction of blood that contains parasite-infected erythrocytes from one infectious individual to another patient during healthcare procedures;
  • Blood transfusion, or bone marrow or organ transplant from a malaria-infected patient;
  • Accidental contact of blood containing parasite-infected erythrocytes with an open wound.

Malaria transmission in a hospital can also be vector-borne, when a malaria-infected mosquito bites a hospitalised patient. According to the literature, investigations are not always conclusive and entomological investigations may fail to identify rare events of vector-borne transmission such as transmission in hospital settings, airport malaria or luggage malaria.
Clinicians must be aware of the possibility of hospital-acquired malaria in hospitalised or recently discharged patients who develop an unexplained fever or a malaria-like clinical syndrome, especially if their hospital admission coincided with that of another patient admitted with malaria.
Healthcare providers should be aware that hospital transmission of malaria is rare but possible, irrespective of the Plasmodium species involved. However, hospital transmission has almost always been associated with P. falciparum . Patients with malaria should always be considered infectious by the parenteral route.
Prevention of transmission in hospitals requires that standard precautions are strictly implemented, including safe injection practices that prevent the sharing of patient care devices or equipment which may be contaminated by patient blood. Transmission of blood-borne pathogens is linked to the sharing of glucose monitoring, capillary blood sampling or insulin administration devices, multi-dose vials, or single-use ampoules among patients and the failure to change gloves after handling intravascular catheters or performing capillary blood testing. Reusable patient care equipment should be cleaned and disinfected between patients in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. The sharing of multi-dose vials among patients should be avoided. If it is necessary to share, a sterile syringe and sterile needle must be used each time the multi-dose vial is accessed.

REFERENCE:
Hospital-acquired malaria infections in the European Union – 30 April 2018, Stockholm, 2018.


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martes, 22 de mayo de 2018

Characteristics of Pandemic Pathogens

The Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security conducted this study to elucidate the characteristics of naturally occurring microorganisms that constitute a global catastrophic biological risk (GCBR). GCBRs are defined as “those events in which biological agents—whether naturally emerging or reemerging, deliberately created and released, or laboratory engineered and escaped—could lead to sudden, extraordinary, widespread disaster beyond the collective capability of national and international governments and the private sector to control. If unchecked, GCBRs would lead to great suffering, loss of life, and sustained damage to national governments, international relationships, economies, societal stability, or global security.” The overarching aim of the study was to provide an inductive, microbe-agnostic analysis of the microbial world to identify fundamental principles that underlie this special category of microorganisms that have potential to cause global catastrophe. Such principles could refine pandemic preparedness by providing a new framework or lens through which to survey the threat landscape of infectious diseases in order to better anticipate, prepare for, and respond to GCBR threats.
REFERENCE:
Adalja AA, Watson M, Toner ES, Cicero A, Inglesby TV. The Characteristics of Pandemic Pathogens. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security; 2018. http://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/our-work/pubs_archive/pubs-pdfs/2018/180510-pandemic-pathogens-report.pdf. Accessed May 21, 2018.

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lunes, 21 de mayo de 2018

Quality of Candidate Strains of Transgenic Mosquitoes for Studies in Containment Facilities

Transgenic mosquitoes are being developed as novel components of area-wide approaches to vector-borne disease control. Best practice is to develop these in phases, beginning with laboratory studies, before moving to field testing and inclusion in control programs, to ensure safety and prevent costly field testing of unsuitable strains. The process of identifying and developing good candidate strains requires maintenance of transgenic colonies over many generations in containment facilities. By working in disease endemic countries with target vector populations, laboratory strains may be developed and selected for properties that will enhance intended control efficacy in the next phase, while avoiding traits that introduce unnecessary risks. Candidate strains aiming toward field use must consistently achieve established performance criteria, throughout the process of scaling up from small study colonies to production of sufficient numbers for field testing and possible open release. Maintenance of a consistent quality can be demonstrated by a set of insect quality and insectary operating indicators, measured over time at predetermined intervals. These indicators: inform comparability of studies using various candidate strains at different times and locations; provide evidence of conformity relevant to compliance with terms of approval for regulated use; and can be used to validate some assumptions related to risk assessments covering the contained phase and for release into the environment.
REFERENCE:
Mumford JD, et al. Maintaining Quality of Candidate Strains of Transgenic Mosquitoes for Studies in Containment Facilities in Disease Endemic Countries. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2018 Jan;18(1):31-38.


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miércoles, 16 de mayo de 2018

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Disinfecting Solutions of Contact Lenses

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use antimicrobial efficacy endpoint methodology to determine compatibility of multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPSs), lens cases, and hydrogel lenses for disinfection (AEEMC) against International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-specified microorganisms and clinical ocular isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
METHODS: Six MPSs (PQ/Aldox 1, 2, and 3; PQ/Alexidine; PQ/PHMB; and PHMB) were challenged against ISO-specified microorganisms and S. maltophilia using the AEEMC test. AEEMC tests were performed with and without balafilcon A, etafilcon A, and senofilcon A lenses in lens cases with organic soil. Exposure times included disinfection time (DT) and 24 hr. Additionally, all six MPSs were challenged with two strains of S. maltophilia, based on the ISO Stand-alone test.
RESULTS: The efficacy against bacteria for PQ/Aldox and PQ/Alexidine MPSs was not diminished by the presence of lenses. The efficacy of PQ/PHMB and PHMB MPSs against Serratia marcescens was significantly reduced compared with the no-lens control at DT for at least one lens type. The PHMB MPS with lenses present also demonstrated reduced efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus at DT versus the control. PQ/Aldox MPSs retained activity against Fusarium solani with lenses present; however, all other test MPSs demonstrated reduced F. solani efficacy at DT with lenses present. With lenses, all MPSs showed reduced efficacy against Candida albicans.
CONCLUSIONS: AEEMC antimicrobial efficacy test results vary based on challenge microorganism, contact lenses, and MPS biocide systems. This study highlights the importance of evaluating MPSs for compatibility with lenses and lens cases.
REFERENCE:

Gabriel MM, McAnally C, Bartell J. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Multipurpose Disinfecting Solutions in the Presence of Contact Lenses and Lens Cases. Eye Contact Lens. 2018 Mar;44(2):125-131.

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viernes, 11 de mayo de 2018

¡¡ OFERTA ESPECIAL HASTA EL 18 DE MAYO** !!


10° Simposio Internacional de Bioseguirdad y Biocustodia

del 5 al 8 de Junio 2018
Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco
México D.F. a Mayo 2018
¡¡ OFERTA ESPECIAL HASTA EL 18 DE MAYO** !!

OFERTA 1. PASE POR DÍA SIN HOSPEDAJE
Incluye: Inscripción a Curso/Simposio por día de las 8:00 am a las 6:00 pm del mismo día, Impuestos.
Desde: $ 1,500 Miembros, 
        $ 1,900 NO Miembros

OFERTA 2. PAQUETE TODO INCLUIDO
Incluye: Inscripción a Curso/Simposio por día, noche de hospedaje (habitación doble compartiendo), en el Hotel Sede Fiesta Americana, Puerto Vallarta, alimentos y bebidas de las 3:00 pm a las 12:00 pm del día siguiente, Impuestos.
Desde: $ 3,500 Miembros, 
        $ 4,100 NO Miembros
** Registro pagado


MESES SIN INTERESES
con tarjeta de crédito



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miércoles, 25 de abril de 2018

‘Cyclical Bias’ in Microbiome Research Revealed by A Portable Germ-Free Housing System Using Nested Isolation

Germ-Free (GF) research has required highly technical pressurized HEPA-ventilation anchored systems for decades. Herein, we validated a GF system that can be easily implemented and portable using Nested Isolation (NesTiso). GF-standards can be achieved housing mice in non-HEPA-static cages, which only need to be nested ‘one-cage-inside-another’ resembling ‘Russian dolls’. After 2 years of monitoring ~100,000 GF-mouse-days, NesTiso showed mice can be maintained GF for life (>1.3 years), with low animal daily-contamination-probability risk (1 every 867 days), allowing the expansion of GF research with unprecedented freedom and mobility. At the cage level, with 23,360 GF cage-days, the probability of having a cage contamination in NesTiso cages opened in biosafety hoods was statistically identical to that of opening cages inside (the ‘gold standard’) multi-cage pressurized GF isolators. When validating the benefits of using NesTiso in mouse microbiome research, our experiments unexpectedly revealed that the mouse fecal microbiota composition within the ‘bedding material’ of conventional SPF-cages suffers cyclical selection bias as moist/feces/diet/organic content (‘soiledness’) increases over time (e.g., favoring microbiome abundances of Bacillales, Burkholderiales, Pseudomonadales; and cultivable Enterococcus faecalis over Lactobacillus murinus and Escherichia coli), which in turn cyclically influences the gut microbiome dynamics of caged mice. Culture ‘co-streaking’ assays showed that cohoused mice exhibiting different fecal microbiota/hemolytic profiles in clean bedding (high-within-cage individual diversity) ‘cyclically and transiently appear identical’ (less diverse) as bedding soiledness increases, and recurs. Strategies are proposed to minimize this novel functional form of cyclical bedding-dependent microbiome selection bias.
REFERENCE:
Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander et al. “‘Cyclical Bias’ in Microbiome Research Revealed by A Portable Germ-Free Housing System Using Nested Isolation.” Scientific Reports 8 (2018): 3801. PMC. Web. 2 Apr. 2018.


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lunes, 23 de abril de 2018

Qualitative Analysis of Origins and Evolution of an Elastomeric #Respirator Program

Elastomeric respirators (elastomerics) may serve as one alternative to disposable N95 respirator use in healthcare. We explored factors which drove elastomeric adoption and continued use in a large academic medical center. We conducted semi-structured and focus group interviews in 2015 with a) 11 leadership key informants (KIs) with involvement in the respiratory protection program (RPP) when elastomerics were introduced and b) 11 healthcare workers (HCWs) recruited from hospital departments assigned to use elastomerics. Interview transcripts and responses were open-coded to capture emergent themes, which were collapsed into broader categories and iteratively refined. Factors identified by leadership KIs as influencing elastomeric adoption included: 1) N95 shortages during 2009’s H1N1 influenza pandemic and 2) the presence of trained, certified safety professionals who were familiar with respiratory protection requirements. Factors identified as influencing ongoing use of elastomerics included: 1) cleaning/decontamination practices, 2) storage, 3) safety culture, 4) HCW respirator knowledge, and 5) risk perception. HCW users expressed dissatisfaction related to breathing, communication and cleaning of elastomerics. Other themes included convenience use of N95s rather than assigned elastomerics, despite perceptions that elastomerics are more protective. Through semi-structured and focus group interviews, we learned that 1) leadership introduced elastomerics due to necessity but now face challenges related to ongoing use, and 2) HCWs were not satisfied with elastomerics for routine care and preferentially used N95s because they were conveniently available at point of use. Although the impetus behind incorporation of elastomerics was clear, the most complex themes related to sustainability of this form of RPP. These themes were used to inform a broader questionnaire and will address the utility of elastomerics as a feasible and acceptable practical alternative to N95s in healthcare.
REFERENCE:
Hines, Stella E et al. “Qualitative Analysis of Origins and Evolution of an Elastomeric Respirator-Based Hospital Respiratory Protection Program.” Journal of the International Society for Respiratory Protection 34.2 (2017): 95–110. Print.

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